How do phylogenetic trees reveal the existence of homoplasy?

organize based on common ancestors. This highlights the evolutionary development characteristics. From this view, we can locate similar characteristics, or homoplasy among multiple species who do not share immediate common ancestors.

Bat and Robin from SnorgTees
Homoplasy, also called *convergent evolution * is the observed phenomenon that different species have developed similar characteristics that they did not inherit from a common ancestor. A common example is that both birds and bats have wings for flight that they did not inherit from their common ancestor (Synapsids).
Phylogenic trees identify common ancestors based on both physical traits (phenotype) and genetic traits (genotype).
Animated diagram of flight paths by Eleanor Lutz
References:

Evolution Basics: An Introduction to Homoplasy and Convergent
Evolution

Similarity Happens! The Problem of
Homoplasy

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